Volume 14, June 2017

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Now showing 1 - 11 of 11
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    Domestic measures during peace time for the implementation of International Humanitarian Law (IHL)
    (CRP,International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-12) Saidul Islam, Mohammad
    International Humanitarian Law (IHL) is frequently neglected by the Parties to the Geneva Conventions during armed conflict (AC). In the contemporary world, IHL has been facing a great threat due to lack of proper implementation which resulted in the severe wounds, unnecessary sufferings, superfluous injury, and even death to the civilians, children, women, and combatants in and outside the armed field. For the implementation of IHL, it is essential that States must take proper steps during peace, conflict, and post-conflict time. The article presents the various mechanisms of implementation of IHL need to be taken by the States during the time of peace. It also focuses the most significant peace time steps sought to be taken by the State to make the IHL rules familiar to the civilians and combatant, to ensure the availability of the necessary instrumentalities for using those during AC for protection and minimization of the sufferings of the victims and to enact essential legislation for trial of the violators after the end of the conflict.
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    Revisiting the orality-literacy relationship and its implications for English language teaching in Bangladesh
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-12) Ali, Md. Maksud
    This paper focuses on different concepts of literacy and their implications for TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages). Taking a critical perspective, the study examines the traditional concept of literacy and illuminates how a narrow approach to literacy may lead to a conflict between national policy text and the actual pedagogic practices. Therefore, the author advocates for situating contemporary TESOL pedagogy within a broader concept. In addition, the study examines how literacy is embedded with orality, and whether the link between them has any implications for English language education in Bangladesh. It is argued here that since different cultures and societies do not adhere to a single set of literacy practices, an awareness of learners’ and other stakeholders’ socio-cultural concepts of literacy in a society is essential for TESOL practitioners in order for their materials and methods to be socio-culturally responsive. The study has implications for policy makers, materials writers and TESOL practitioners
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    Īmān, Islām, taqwā, kufr, shirk, and nifāq: Definitions, examples and impacts on human life
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-12) Hassan, Md. Mahmudul
    The Holy Qur‟an encompasses the comprehensive code for mankind to live a rewarding life in this world, to rescue from the Jahannam and to enter the Jannah in the Hereafter. Īmān, Islām, taqwā, kufr, shirk, and nifāq are, the six significant terms, used in the Noble Qur‟an frequently. All of them represent the characteristics of human beings. The possessors of these characters will go to their eternal destination; the Jannah or Jahannam. The Jannah is the aftermath of īmān, Islam and taqwā. On the other hand, kufr, shirk, and nifāq lead to the Jahannam. This study intends to present the definitions and examples of these six terms according to the Qur‟anic statement, and then shed light on the impact of each character on human life quoting the evidence from the Holy Qur‟an and the Traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The possessors of these six remarkable terms are entitled successively as mu'min, muslim, muttaqī to be rewarded Jannah and kafīr, mushrik, and munāfiq to be punished in Jahannam
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    Critique of ethnic nationalism in the teachings of Said Nursi: A study of nationalism and the question of Islam in Bangladeshi identity
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-06) Rabeya, Sumaiya; Hossain, Mohammad
    Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, a strong proponent of Muslim unity, was always against what he called negative nationalism in Muslim societies. While he believed that nationalism could play a positive role in arousing compassion of Muslims, he also warned of its potential drawbacks and adverse consequences as a tool for domination and causing harm. Ethnic nationalism is primarily seen in highly homogenous societies throughout the world today. Bangladeshi nationalism, as developed by its proponents, has however, failed to be inclusive, and instead works within a framework which tends towards exclusion. This paper, through a discursive discussion of historical narratives and aspects of identity formation, argues that recent manifestations of the ills of Bangladeshi nationalism, stems from deeper issues related to failure of resolving the place of religious identity, mainly Islamic identity, within the Bangladeshi identity. This has led to aspects of negative nationalism, such as deeply polarized society, and aided in maintaining the divisive dichotomy of the secular and religious within the nation state in Bangladesh.
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    Contributions of MNEs to poverty alleviation through CSR programs: Bangladesh perspective
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-12) Hoque, Nazamul; Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahid Hossain
    This study examines the contribution of CSR programs of multinational enterprises (MNEs) operating in Bangladesh in the poverty alleviation. The authors employed a mixed-method approach to collect qualitative data by interviewing executives of ten MNEs while for quantitative data annual reports, websites, and articles were consulted. Results depicted insignificant contribution of MNEs in poverty alleviation by their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The average contribution of sample MNEs stand at only 0.52 per cent of profits after tax to CSR programs, ranging from 2.96% to 0.15%. The study reveals that most of the MNEs are not contributing as per their financial capacity and they lack a policy of donating a reasonable portion of profit to CSR along with poverty alleviation priority. The study suggests that government of Bangladesh must act sincerely and deliberately for active involvement of MNEs in CSR programs helpful for poverty alleviation by necessary policy framework and motivational supports with a view to accelerate the poverty alleviation movement for a happy, prosperous, and progressive Bangladesh.
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    Does investment in human resource development affect financial performance? Empirical evidence from the banking sector of Bangladesh
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-06) Zahid Hossain Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Uddin, Md. Mahi; Ahmad, Afzal; Hoque, Nazamul
    The study aims at examining the impact of investment in human resource development (HRD) on the financial performance of the banking sector of Bangladesh. Using the economic data as well as survey data collected from purposively selected 120 bank executives of 20 private commercial banks of Bangladesh. The study through regression models finds that there is a significant positive correlations between HRD investment (in salaries and allowances, provident fund and gratuity, bonus and incentives, staff welfare and training, workshop, and seminar) and financial performance of the sample banks. Though, training is one of the important HRD indicators, the lowest investment was made in this sector by the sample banks. The findings of the study may be useful for bankers, policymakers, HR professionals, and the stakeholders of all types of organizations regardless of the geographical boundary. Finally, further investigations on manufacturing and other service sectors through case study, focus groups, and longitudinal study are also suggested.
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    Role of leadership on organizational learning in private universities of Bangladesh
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-07) Uddin, Md. Mahi; Khan, Mohammad Aktaruzzama; Ali, Kalsom
    The study investigates the influence of leadership styles, i.e. transactional and transformational on promoting organizational learning in some selected private universities in Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study used a quantitative research design. Data have been collected from three private universities of Chittagong through a survey instrument. The study analyzed in total 147 matched completed questionnaires. The findings of the study revealed that contingent reward of transactional leadership and idealized influence and individualized consideration of transformational leadership played significant and positive influence on enhancing organizational learning. Although, findings of this research did not report any significant impact of management by exception-active and management by exception-passive as constructs of transactional leadership as well as inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation as dimensions of transformational leadership style on organizational learning. The study extends present literature in the field by relating leadership styles and organizational learning focusing on emerging economies particularly in the context of Bangladesh
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    Phytochemical and biological investigation on Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-07) Sharmin, Sanjida; Tareq, Fakir Shahidullah; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood; Ahsan, Monira
    The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. (Family: Moraceae) was investigated for the isolation of pure compounds and determination of few biological activities. A mixture of two compounds cycloartenyl acetate and lupeol acetate were isolated from it. The crude methanol extract as well as its petroleum ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and aqueous soluble fractions were studied for antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Among the different fractions, the aqueous soluble partitionate was found to have most potent antioxidant activity as compared to tertbutyl-1-hydroxytoluene. Antimicrobial screening of the different fractions was performed using the disc diffusion method. In these tests, the chloroform soluble fraction and carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of methanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity (range of zone of inhibition 8-12 mm). In brine shrimp lethality test, the petroleum ether soluble extract exhibited the highest level of cytotoxicity.
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    In vitro, in vivo and in silico drugdrug interaction study between Vildagliptin and Bisoprolol fumarate
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-06) Chowdhury, Kazi Ashfak Ahmed; Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Chowdhury, Tanvir Ahmad; Chakrabarty, Nishan
    Aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro, in vivo and in silico drug-drug interaction between Vildagliptin and Bisoprolol fumarate. Interaction between Vildagliptin and Bisoprolol fumarate has been studied in a system of water at a fixed 370C at pH 1.0, 3.0 and 6.8 by using spectral observation, Job’s method of continuous variation, Ardon’s method. In silico complexation was measured by NMR prediction and DDI-CPI analysis. From spectrophotometric study, Vildagliptin and Bisoprolol fumarate give different spectra when Vildagliptin mixed with Bisoprolol fumarate in 1:1 mixture, intensity of spectra of Vildagliptin transform surprisingly due to interaction. The jobs plot was attained by plotting absorbance difference (D) against the mole fraction of the each drug at pH 1, 3, and 6.8. Vildagliptin moderate for 1:1 mixture with Bisoprolol fumarate and slightly lower spectra indicate the formation of 1:1 mixture of Vildagliptin with Bisoprolol fumarate. The value of stability constant for the drug-drug system at pH 1.0, 3.0 and 6.8 are 1.875 0.7778 and 1.2000 respectively. From the IR report it also proved that Vildagliptin and Bisoprolol fumarate produced interaction. In this OGTT test at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 complex blood glucose level decrease compared to Vildagliptin. Because when drug-drug interaction happened, then drug cannot exhibit its main activity. That’s why in this test complex showed different activity. In in silico methods, results showed that the drugs interact with each other. So, a careful concern is desired during simultaneous administration of Vildagliptin with Bisoprolol fumarate
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    Antimicrobial activities of isolated probiotics and their metabolites against some pathogenic microorganisms
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-06) Sayeed, Mohammed Abu; Hossen, Altaf; Saha, Repon; Jakaria, Md.
    The study was aimed to finding the antimicrobial activities among probiotics isolated from different yoghurts and their metabolites against some common bacterial pathogens. The nutrient agar media overlay method (Disc diffusion Method) was used to determine the presence of antibacterial effects among the isolated probiotics. Probiotics produced potential antibacterial activities against several pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The maximum antibacterial property (13.5 mm of zone of inhibition) of bacterial strain found against Salmonella paratyphi. Conversly, bacterial metabolites produced maximum effect (10.3 mm of zone of inhibition) against Staphylocuccos aureaus. The antibacterial effect is one of the most important criteria for probiotics selection, and the verified antibacterial activities of the probiotics supports the development of these functional foods as a key to the enhancement of health in the consuming public.
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    Future drug delivery technologies: benchtop to industry
    (CRP, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2017-06) Uddin, Md. Jasim; Sultana, Irin; Nipa, Ayesha Amin; Chowdhury, M. Mohi Uddin
    Transmucosal buckle drug delivery system is considered as a future drug delivery technology, always assist to enhance patient compliance mainly for pediatric and geriatric community. The studies aim to develop buccal delivery for delivering a hydrophilic drug, flucloxacillin sodium, across the mucosal route. The buccal films are comprised of a bio adhesive polymer, plasticizer and drug. Optimized films were characterized by measurement of weight, length and width, hardness, thickness, surface pH, moisture content and uptake, swelling study, folding resilience, hydration and entrapment efficiency. Drug release studies were performed for different polymer-plasticizer-drug ratios. Concentration of polymer and plasticizer were influenced on the development, evaluation and release rate of flucloxacillin sodium from the buccal films. In conclusion, these studies reveal that buccal delivery of flucloxacillin sodium can be an alternative route in comparison to conventional route for patient compliance.